About this website

This interactive website has been set up by the Lisbon Council to gather available evidence and data points on the issue of intermediary liability.

The liability exemption for online intermediaries, established in the e-commerce directive in 2000, has been the cornerstone of Internet regulation for the last twenty years in Europe. It has enabled the growth of online services and allowed an explosion of creativity through user-generated content, while being flexible enough to accommodate for exemptions on issues such as copyright and child protection.

Yet today’s reality is very different from twenty years ago. The upcoming innovators have become the largest companies on earth. The black box of unpredictable virality has been manipulated by hostile state players to become a tool for elections tampering. Politicians break the conventions of what is acceptable in the policy debate, both online and offline. In summary, our societies and our democracies are under strain.

At this crucial time, from many sides we hear calls for stronger internet regulation and the European Commission is working on a new Digital Service Act.

More than ever, it is important that the debate is based on evidence, rather than ideology. This website presents a systematic review of the evidence available on:

  • The problems: are these issues growing?
  • The solutions: which policies have worked more effectively?

The review covers the five traditional topics of intermediary liability: Copyright Infringement, Disinformation, Hate Speech, Illegal Content, Incitement to Terrorism. It aims to provide evidence for the debate and inspiration for policymakers.You can explore all the datasets or focus on a specific topic. All charts and data are downloadable.

You can check the sources below. Last but not least, you can contribute by submitting additional pieces of evidence.

Sources of the charts

There are 31 sources available


An Analysis of Germany’s NetzDG Law, by the Transatlantic Working Group
The Transatlantic Working Group is a project of the Annenberg Public Policy Center (APPC) of the University of Pennsylvania, in partnership with The Annenberg Foundation Trust at Sunnylands, in Rancho Mirage, Calif., and the Institute for Information Law (IViR), which is affiliated with the Faculty of Law of the University of Amsterdam. The group brings together more than two dozen leaders in politics, academia, business, technology and civil society to examine existing and proposed policies and identify best practices in reducing hate speech, violent extremism, and viral deception online while protecting free speech and a vibrant global internet.
(charts 44.0 45.0 )
Bezpieczne wybory. Badanie opinii o (dez)informacji w sieci
NASK Social Research Laboratory analysts, observers of social behavior, have attempted to assess the impact of information, or rather disinformation, which we are subjected to the process of thinking and making decisions. This report presents the results of research whose context has shaped the current economic and political situation.
(charts 22.0 )
Copyright enforcement online: policies and mechanisms, by the European Audiovisual Observatory
The European Audiovisual Observatory is part of the Council of Europe in Strasbourg, France. It is a public service organisation. The Observatory was created in 1992 in order to collect and distribute information about the audiovisual industries in Europe. By making this information available, the Observatory aims at promoting greater transparency and a clearer understanding of the ways in which the audiovisual industries in Europe function, both from an economic and legal point of view.
(charts 81.0 82.0 83.0 84.0 85.0 )
De Filippi, Primavera, and Danièle Bourcier. "“Three-Strikes” Response to Copyright Infringement: The Case of HADOPI." In The Turn to Infrastructure in Internet Governance, pp. 125-152. Palgrave Macmillan, New York, 2016.
"“Three-Strikes” Response to Copyright Infringement: The Case of HADOPI" is Chapter 7 of The Turn to Infrastructure in Internet Governance, edited by Francesca MusianiDerrick L. CogburnLaura DeNardisNanette S. Levinson and published in 2016.
(charts 41.0 )
Discrimination and hate crime against Jews in EU Member States: experiences and perceptions of antisemitism
The European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights (FRA) is the EU’s centre of fundamental rights expertise. It is one of the EU’s decentralised agencies. These agencies are set up to provide expert advice to the institutions of the EU and the Member States on a range of issues. The Agency helps to ensure that the fundamental rights of people living in the EU are protected.
Disrupting Daesh: Measuring Takedown of Online Terrorist Material and Its Impacts, by Maura Conway, Moign Khawaja, Suraj Lakhani, Jeremy Reffin, Andrew Robertson & David Weir
"Disrupting Daesh: Measuring Takedown of Online Terrorist Material and Its Impacts" was published in Studies in Conflict and Terrorism in 2019 by authors Maura Conway, Moign Khawaja, Suraj Lakhani, Jeremy Reffin, Andrew Robertson & David Weir.
(charts 53.0 54.0 )
EU Kids Online
EU Kids Online is a multinational research network. It seeks to enhance knowledge of European children's online opportunities, risks and safety. It uses multiple methods to map children's and parents' experience of the internet, in dialogue with national and European policy stakeholders. It has been funded by the EC’s Better Internet for Kids programme.
(charts 103.0 104.0 )
Eurobarometer Flash Report 469
The Flash Eurobarometer 469, carried out by the European Commission, targeted citizens and aimed at collecting data on their perceptions and preferences, as well as their experience with encountering illegal content online or with posting content which is removed by online hosting service providers. The Eurobarometer was carried out in June 2018 and built on a representative sample of views across all 28 Member States, with a total of 33,224 EU respondents, residents from different social and demographic groups, out of which 30,266 are users of some type of hosting service online.
European Commission
The European Commission is the executive branch of the European Union, responsible for proposing legislation, implementing decisions, upholding the EU treaties and managing the day-to-day business of the EU.
(charts 9.0 10.0 11.0 12.0 21.0 66.0 )
European Union Terrorism situation and Trend Report 2018
Europol is the European Union’s law enforcement agency. Europol's main goal is to achieve a safer Europe for the benefit of all the EU citizens. Headquartered in The Hague, the Netherlands, Europol supports the 28 EU Member States in their fight against terrorism, cybercrime and other serious and organised forms of crime. Europol also works with many non-EU partner states and international organisations.
(charts 130.0 131.0 )
Flash Eurobarometer 464
In June 2017, the European Parliament adopted a Resolution calling on the European Commission to analyse in depth the current situation and legal framework with regard to fake news, and to verify the possibility of legislative intervention to limit the dissemination and spreading of fake content. This Flash Eurobarometer is designed to explore EU citizens’ awareness of and attitudes towards the existence of fake news and disinformation online. It covers the following issues: - Levels of trust in news and information accessed through different channels; - People’s perceptions of how often they encounter news or information that is misleading or false; - Public confidence in identifying news or information that is misleading or false; - People’s views on the extent of the problem, both in their own country and for democracy in general; - Views on which institutions and media actors should act to stop the spread of fake news.
(charts 16.0 17.0 18.0 19.0 20.0 )
Flash Eurobarometer 469
The Flash Eurobarometer 469, carried out by the European Commission, targeted citizens and aimed at collecting data on their perceptions and preferences, as well as their experience with encountering illegal content online or with posting content which is removed by online hosting service providers. The Eurobarometer was carried out in June 2018 and built on a representative sample of views across all 28 Member States, with a total of 33,224 EU respondents, residents from different social and demographic groups, out of which 30,266 are users of some type of hosting service online.
(charts 13.0 14.0 43.0 )
Global Online Piracy Study, by the Institute for Information Law at the University of Amsterdam
The Institute for Information Law (IViR), officially established in 1989, is one of the largest research centers in the field of information law in the world. The Institute employs over 25 researchers who are active in an entire spectrum of information society related legal areas: intellectual property law, patents, telecommunications and broadcasting regulation, media law, Internet regulation, advertising law, domain names, freedom of expression, privacy, digital consumer issues, commercial speech, et cetera.
(charts 60.0 62.0 63.0 64.0 64.1 65.0 )
Google Code of Practice on Disinformation June 2019 report
This report is one of the ones received monthly by the European Commission from Google addressing actions taken during May 2019 towards implementation of the commitments on electoral integrity. This report was submitted under the intermediate targeted monitoring of the Code of Practice against disinformation.
(charts 68.0 69.0 )
HADOPI 2016/2017 activity report
HADOPI is the government agency in France responsible for implementing France's HADOPI (Haute Autorité pour la Diffusion des Œuvres et la Protection des droits d'auteur sur Internet) law. This law, created in 2009, is intended to create a graduate response to copyright infringement online.
Influence of Russian Disinformation Operations – Specific examples in data and numbers, by European Values
European Values Center for Security Policy is a non-governmental, non-partisan institute defending freedom and sovereignty. Its goals are to protect liberal democracy, the rule of law, and the transatlantic alliance of the Czech Republic, as well as helping defend Europe especially from the malign influences of Russia, China, and Islamic extremists. It is part of the Open Information Partnership.
(charts 29.0 30.0 30.1 )
Katrin Kienast via Statista
Statista.com consolidates statistical data on over 80,000 topics from more than 22,500 sources and makes it available on four platforms: German, English, French and Spanish.
Measuring the Impact of ISIS Social Media Strategy, by Majid Alfifi, Parisa Kaghazgaran, James Caverlee, and Fred Morstatter
"Measuring the Impact of ISIS Social Media Strategy" is an article written by Majid Alfifi, Parisa Kaghazgaran, and James Caverlee of Texas A&M University, and Fred Morstatter of the University of Southern California.
(charts 47.0 48.0 )
Measuring the reach of “fake news” and online disinformation in Europe, by Reuters Institute
The Reuters Institute for the Study of Journalism at Oxford University is dedicated to exploring the future of journalism worldwide through debate, engagement, and research. The Reuters Institute for the Study of Journalism hosts journalists from all over the world, connects them with professional peers and leading academics from a wide range of different fields, and facilitates the exchange of ideas by taking part in public debates, by hosting conversations, and by publishing new and interesting work.
(charts 23.0 24.0 25.0 26.0 27.0 28.0 )
More information, faster removals, more people - an update on what we’re doing to enforce YouTube’s Community Guidelines, by the Official YouTube Blog
YouTube is a video sharing platform now owned by Google. The Official YouTube Blog is a blog published on YouTube's website updating readers on news YouTube would like to publicize.
(charts 59.0 )
Ofcom Adults’ media use and attitudes
Ofcom is authorized by the United Kingdom's Parliment to regulate TV, radio and video on demand sectors, fixed line telecoms, mobiles, postal services, and the airwaves over which wireless devices operate.
(charts 120.0 121.0 )
Ofcom Children and Parents: Media Use and Attitudes Report
Ofcom is authorized by the United Kingdom's Parliment to regulate TV, radio and video on demand sectors, fixed line telecoms, mobiles, postal services, and the airwaves over which wireless devices operate.
(charts 122.0 123.0 )
Online Copyright Infringement in the European Union. Music, films and TV (2017-2018), Trends and Drivers
This report of the European Intellectual Property Office examines consumption of copyright-infringing content in the 28 EU Member States, for TV programmes, music and film, using a variety of desktop and mobile access methods, including streaming, downloading, torrents and ripping software. The report consists of two parts, a descriptive analysis of the trends in consumption of infringing content, and an econometric analysis of the factors that influence differences in piracy rates among the EU Member States.
S. O'Dea via Statista
Statista.com consolidates statistical data on over 80,000 topics from more than 22,500 sources and makes it available on four platforms: German, English, French and Spanish.
(charts 31.0 )
Special Eurobarometer
I don't know which eurobarometer this is. It is cited in Charts 99 and 100 but they no longer have links to the original source so I'm unsure how to proceed.
(charts 99.0 100.0 101.0 102.0 )
Statista Research Department
Statista.com consolidates statistical data on over 80,000 topics from more than 22,500 sources and makes it available on four platforms: German, English, French and Spanish.
(charts 15.0 40.0 46.0 )
The State of Cyber Hate, by INACH
The International Network Against Cyber Hate aims to combat discrimination on the Internet. The organization was founded on October 4, 2002 by jugendschutz.net and Magenta Foundation, Complaints Bureau for Discrimination on the Internet. INACH is a foundation under Dutch law, and has its office/secretariat in Amsterdam.
(charts 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 )
Trends in Trade in Counterfeit and Pirated Goods
This study concluded by the European Intellectual Property Office and the OECD, presents updated figures on the scale, scope and magnitude of trade in counterfeit and pirated goods, based on a statistical analysis of a unique database of half a million seizures of counterfeit goods. Structured interviews with trade and customs experts also contributed to the analysis.
(charts 136.0 )
Twitter Code of Practice on Disinformation June 2019 Report
This report is one of the ones received monthly by the European Commission from Twitter addressing actions taken during May 2019 towards implementation of the commitments on electoral integrity. This report was submitted under the intermediate targeted monitoring of the Code of Practice against disinformation.
(charts 71.0 72.0 )

About the Lisbon Council

The Lisbon Council for Economic Competitiveness and Social Renewal asbl is a Brussels based think tank and policy network. Established in 2003 in Belgium as a non-profit, non-partisan association, the group is dedicated to making a positive contribution through cutting-edge research and by engaging political leaders and the public at large in a constructive exchange about the economic and social challenges of the 21st century. For more, visit www.lisboncouncil.net or follow the organisation on twitter at @lisboncouncil.