Copyright as a term is used to describe the author’s rights over their literary, scientific and artistic works. In the European Union, copyright protection is granted automatically from the moment the work is created and no registration is necessary. Copyright is infringed when a person uses a “substantial part” of a copyright-protected work, without the authorisation of the author.
Disinformation is defined as "verifiably false or misleading information" which, cumulatively, "is created, presented and disseminated for economic gain or to intentionally deceive the public"; and "may cause public harm", intended as "threats to democratic political and policymaking processes as well as public goods such as the protection of EU citizens' health, the environment or security".
Average monthly Facebook interactions for prominent French news sites, and some of the most popular false news sites (2017)
Average monthly Facebook interactions for prominent Italian news sites, and some of the most popular false news sites (2017)
Average monthly reach of prominent French news sites, and some of the most popular false news sites (2017)
In recent years, policymakers in the European Union dedicated a special attention to identifying policies which will help countering illegal hate speech online. As a result, a Code of conduct on countering hate speech online has been agreed by platforms to tackle this issue.
Assessment of manifestations of antisemitism against Jewish community today, average of the eight EU Member States surveyed (%)
Incitement to terrorism, illegal hate speech, child sexual abuse material, infringement of intellectual property rights and of consumer protection online are defined as illegal content. In 2017, the European Commission proposed a European Union-wide approach on illegal content issuing a Communication on Tackling Illegal Content Online. This communication was translated into a non-binding Recommendation on measures to effectively tackle illegal content online.
In accordance with article 14 of the e-Commerce Directive, online platforms must take down illegal content expeditiously once they are aware of its existence. Particularly, a fast removal is required when serious harm is at stake such in the case of incitement to terrorism. Moreover, the Communication on Tackling Illegal Content Online of the European Commission (2017) stipulates again that incitement to terrorism is considered illegal content.