Grounds of Hatred Reported by Social Media Platforms (2021)

Source: European Commission. Sixth Evaluation on the Code of Conduct on Countering Illegal Hate Speech Online (Brussels: European Commission, 2021)
Topic: Hate Speech
Reference year: 2021
Geographical area: European Union
Method: Self-reporting
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The chart shows the grounds of hatred reported for reviewed posts, based on data reported by social media platforms participating in the European Commission's Code of conduct. In 2021, sexual orientation and xenophobia were the most common grounds for hatred, while religion, race and ethnic origin were the least common grounds for hatred. (Note: The data on grounds of hatred are only an indication and are influenced by the number of notifications sent by each organisation as well as their field of work.)